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    How to write a resume
    Resume format
    Resume tips
 Cover Letter


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Student Resource

CV-Resume Format

The candidate has different options of format to present/display the information on experience and studies: The most usual are:

Chronological resume

Habitually used resume format that does not always make the main target easier: TO OBTAIN AN INTERVIEW

The academic education (including masters and seminaries) and the experience appear in inverse chronological order, beginning by the present or last work and later the previous ones, and finishing with the studies:

Disadvantages of this format: it shows the periods of inactivity (months, years) and/or the very frequent changes of work. This often makes the candidate cover these spaces with irrelevant information for the position.

It emphasizes the person’s progression in work: promotion and increase of responsibilities are reflected, which has the disadvantage of showing if a person, although very effective in his or her work and satisfied with their role, has not ascended or taken more responsibilities.

Functional resume

The resume functional avoids the disadvantages of the chronological resume type and facilitates the exhibition of abilities and achievements obtained, although the dates in the work experience are not continuous, helping to disguise the periods of inactivity or successive similar jobs without promotion. The functional resume type is used when you want to highlight the professional career or enter a totally different activity in which the type of company and/or studies is not relevant but the abilities, capacities and type of work are.

You can use the functional resume:

If you want to emphasize your abilities over the duration of your work experience.

If you want to return to the job market after a period of inactivity.

If there are many periods of unemployment between each job.

If you have changed jobs quite often.

If you are looking for a job in a completely different sector.

Combined resume

Combined resume format mixes the previous formats (chronological resume and functional resume). The resume begins with the functional format resume and finishes with the chronological format resume. The combined resume format is more difficult to write and more complex but it has the advantage of emphasising the experience and abilities that the candidates have towards the new position they are applying for, as well as to reflect in a dynamic format their experience and training.


It shows very clearly that you know what you want to do and that you have the capabilities necessary to carry out the position.

It includes the section "Goals Achieved".

It allows more flexibility and creativity in reflecting abilities.

It helps to obtain a particular position, something you can’t achieve by leaving your resume or CV in a database (?) (very usual at jobsites).


You need a different summary for each job that you choose. It is time-consuming.

It eliminates information on your abilities and experience that you may prefer to exclude if you are applying for more than one position in the same company.

Personal data

- Essential: Full name, date of birth, address and telephone (landline and/or mobile) and email if you have.

- Not necessary nor compulsory: civil status, children, age, race, religious beliefs.

- ID or passport is not necessary, but it is certain that there are companies whose computerised database requires the introduction of and ID in order to store the rest of the data.

- Nationality and work permits: it depends on the place where you have chosen to work. If it is Spain and you are either a Spaniard or a European Union citizen, just state your nationality. Other nationals need to state if they have a residency or a work permit.

- Photograph: it is not necessary to send it, except at the request of the company making the selection.

For more information on resume writing samples and cover letter tips please visit, offering all the information, tips writing a resume, free resources and examples about resumes, cv and cover letters on the web.


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